Social Media and Mental Health
The vast majority of articles addressing the impacts of technology on kids center around mental health issues. While most studies show a correlation between technology use and mental health, more recent studies are establishing a causal link between some technology use, mainly social media use, and mental health issues, such as decreased well-being, and mental illness.
This section examines the adolescent mental health statistics and the impacts of social media affect on mental health.
For suggestions and solutions, see Empower: Mental Health, Social Media and Sleep.
Sure, Social Media has the ability to connect people in ways we could never connect before. This is especially helpful for marginalized individuals and groups, and for raising awareness of philanthropic ventures.
At TLO, there is no way we could do what we do without social media. Unfortunately, all this connectivity is not without its drawbacks, particularly as it relates to mental health.
There are a variety of reasons why social media use contributes to negative well-being including relational aggression, social comparison and social exclusion or FOMO.
Because of where adolescents are in their social-emotional development, social media has a particularly strong negative impact on middle and high schoolers. This is the result of focusing on likes, cyberbullying and fake friends.
The ongoing pressure to respond and post, and less face-to-face interactions is also negatively affecting teens’ and adults’ well-being.
let’s look at the numbers*
Major Depressive Episode in a single year (Ages 12-17)
7% of Boys
Up from 5% in 2010
20% of Girls
Up from 12% in 2010
Hospital Admission for Non-Fatal Self-Harm
No significant change in boys
Girls ages 10-14
Girls ages 15-19
Social Media and Mental Health.
The statistics above are alarming and many health professionals and researchers are conducting studies in an attempt to understand why.
What is the cause?
Based of preliminary data and consideration of timing and sex differences, many in the field see a correlation between mental health and the increased use of smartphones and social media by children.
By 2010, more than half of middle and high schoolers have smartphones and social media. And that number has risen steadily since.
Why does social media affects girls more than boys?
Boys use smartphones to access gaming and pornography.
Girls use smartphones and social media to engage in relational aggression. Girls bully by damaging each others’ social relationships, often anonymously, day and night, through spreading rumors, forwarding doctored pictures and social exclusion.
Prior to social media, girls would compare themselves to models. Now, girls compare themselves to photo-shopped images of their peers on social media. Additionally, the posting of life experiences can be just as discouraging, leading to feelings of inadequacy.
Girls are much more sensitive to social exclusion and FOMO than boys. Social media exacerbates these instances. Girls also rely heavily on peers for social validation through social media likes and comments.
Other explanations for how social media can negatively affect well-being:
Focusing on likes: During middle school and high school, adolescents are developing their identities. In figuring out who they are, they often look to peers for validation. Social media has been designed to exploit this need. Tweens and teens often feel pressure to alter their appearance and engage in negative and risky behavior, all in the name of validation through likes.
Cyberbullying: There is no question that cyberbullying is a major culprit in the onset of depression, anxiety and suicidal thoughts amongst adolescents. Cyberbullying occurs when kids forward messages and pictures, engage in verbal abuse, sometime anonymously, and deliberately exclude others.
Having too many fake friends: Even with privacy settings, teens tend to rack up 100s to 1000s of friends on social media sites which contributes to the collection of personal information, photos and messages that are often used as social ammunition by fake or fickle friends. There is no privacy on social media.
Pressure to respond and post: Teens are under an incredible amount of internal and external pressure to not only respond to messages, maintain SnapChat streak and manage 100s of incoming texts, but also to post interesting, funny, attractive photos and status updates. This pressure can be consuming, especially when teens are basing their self-worth on the responses they will receive from these posts.
Less face time: Social interaction requires practice. It’s difficult to build empathy, compassion and resilience when communicating online. Human connection is tied to feelings of positive well being and helps kids build important skills for the future.
wow, that was depressing. What can we do about this?
Technology executives and developers are limiting their own personal use and their children’s use of technology, particularly devices and social media.
As devices and apps have evolved, they’ve become better and more addictive, making it difficult for kids to disconnect. An army of psychologists and developers employee psychological techniques to keep users on devices and apps.
As a result, kids are spending less time engaged in healthy activities, such as playing outside and face-to-face communication, and more and more time on devices.
As a community, we can solve the problem by establishing sensible societal norms.
Learn More about Social Media and Mental Health.
The UK Chief Medical Officers here publish a commentary which includes their advice for parents and carers, and their recommendations for other stakeholders.
*Data borrowed from Psychologist Jonathan Haidt. To hear directly from him, listen here starting at 1:18.
Associations between screen time and lower psychological well-being among children and adolescents - Previous research on associations between screen time and psychological well-being among children and adolescents has been conflicting, leading some researchers to question the limits on screen time suggested by physician organizations. This study examined a large ( 40,337 individuals) national random sample of 2- to 17-year-old children and adolescents in the U.S. in 2016 that included comprehensive measures of screen time (including cell phones, computers, electronic devices, electronic games, and TV) and an array of psychological well-being measures. After 1 h/day of use, more hours of daily screen time were associated with lower psychological well-being, including less curiosity, lower self-control, more distractibility, more difficulty making friends, less emotional stability, being more difficult to care for, and inability to finish tasks. Among 14- to 17-year-olds, high users of screens (7+ h/day vs. low users of 1 h/day) were more than twice as likely to ever have been diagnosed with depression, ever diagnosed with anxiety, treated by a mental health professional or have taken medication for a psychological or behavioral issue in the last 12 months. Moderate use of screens (4 h/day) was also associated with lower psychological well-being. Non-users and low users of screens generally did not differ in well-being. Associations between screen time and lower psychological well-being were larger among adolescents than younger children.
There’s Worrying New Research About Kids’ Screen Time and Their Mental Health - Time Magazine recap of above study.
Forbes - New Studies Show Just How Bad Social Media Is For Mental Health - Two new studies underline this reality by showing not just correlation, but causation—in other words, that tweaking your time on social media actually has measurable effects on mental health.
Science Daily - Social media use increases depression and loneliness, study finds. Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram may not be great for personal well-being. The first experimental study examining use of multiple platforms shows a causal link between time spent on these social media and increased depression and loneliness.
Science Direct - The effects of active social media engagement with peers on body image in young women
Washington Times - “From 2010 to 2015, a record number of teenagers were reporting depressive symptoms and overloading mental health clinics, while suicide rates climbed for the first time in decades,” said psychologist Jean Twenge, lead author of the study, which was published Tuesday in the journal Clinical Psychological Science.
American Academy of Pediatrics - The use of social media during adolescence can also negatively impact health and development. Although the majority of adolescents report that social media are a positive contribution to their lives,19 more negative associations with social media have also been documented in the research literature. These include cyberbullying, depression, social anxiety, and exposure to developmentally inappropriate content.
The Atlantic - Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? Teens who spend more time than average on screen activities are more likely to be unhappy, and those who spend more time than average on nonscreen activities are more likely to be happy. Teens who spend three hours a day or more on electronic devices are 35 percent more likely to have a risk factor for suicide, such as making a suicide plan.
Science Daily - Risky decisions: Excessive social media use is comparable to drug addiction. Bad decision-making is a trait oftentimes associated with drug addicts and pathological gamblers, but what about people who excessively use social media? New research by the University of Michigan shows a connection between social media use and impaired risky decision-making, which is commonly deficient in substance addiction.
Google - We discussed two negative behavioral cycles: an internal experience of habit and excessive use, and an externally reinforced cycle of social obligation. Research has also found the use of smartphones to regulate unpleasant emotional states, such as distracting oneself from negative feelings or to increase stimulation and feelings of social connection when bored or lonely ; these attention- and emotion-regulation motives were found to be related to the practice of texting while driving .
Time - Why Instagram Is the Worst Social Media for Mental Health. Instagram is the worst social media network for mental health and wellbeing, according to a recent survey of almost 1,500 teens and young adults. While the photo-based platform got points for self-expression and self-identity, it was also associated with high levels of anxiety, depression, bullying and FOMO, or the “fear of missing out.”